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A Global State of Peace: Is it Possible?

Oleksiy Fesenko, September 27, 2017

Hobbes said that the Human beings are aggressive by nature, the causes of the war. He emphasized the role of a state in returning the society from the state of war to peace.

As the opposite, Russo believed that human nature is not warlike. He suggested that the state is the apparatus of enforcement. As any enforcement it leads to resistance, the interests of two or several states come into clash: a contradiction that causes the wars.

I will not agree with Hobbes because the causes of war are not in the genes or hormones but instead can hold cultural, materialistic and psychological explanations.

 Cultural Explanations: Actually culture alone cannot explain any predispositions to war, just one culture is more warlike than the others are. Cultural supremacism cannot be the explanation and approval. Instead, there are some "contextualized and temporary" (Centeno, 2017) cultural traits, approaches and even rituals (FAO, n.d.).

For example, Greece in 300 B.C. had two land-tenure cultures: under the Slaveholding in Sparta, and the first democracy in Athens. The earlier based on the great territories of the arable lands: simple to harvest. Approximately ten slaves were able to sustain one Spartan. The later - the territory of Athens was difficult to harvest. Olives and fruit trees planted in mountings took many decades to mature before the first harvesting. Only the free people could apply the necessary care. The former culture could convince itself having no other choice but to fight in order to further oppress the slaves. The later in order to enforce the democratic decisions of the assembly.

 Materialistic Explanations: While the materials are the scarce resource, the scarce resources also can be the human resources as well as technologies and the professionals who create the benefits, or engaged in their narrow field. Very often, the materialistic explanation of the causes of war falls into the category of explanation of the total wars pre-determined on not so.

For example, the Chinese Great Sparrow Campaign was a fight for the scarce resource grains, caused extermination of sparrows (Platt, 2013). The sparrows themselves came to be the scarce resource as they consumed the pests. Consequently, the campaign ended with the greatest famine in history with 20-45 million Chinese died from starvation. According to ‘The Seville Statement on Violence’ (P.P. UNION PROJECT, 2001):  "the evidence shows that people and animals do best when they learn how to work well with each other."

The other campaign was human engineered famine in Ukraine, with the goal to expropriate the land from the private farmers to the collective farms. This campaign of collectivization caused grab of property, land, and food and resulted in 3-10 million Ukrainians died in 1932-1933. To be noted that the population of Ukraine at that time was approximately 29 million (according to the census of 1929). As a result, even now Ukraine suffers from the unprofessional-owner complex leading to the depletion of lands and to the unpopular status of the private farmer, the Government and Parliament of Ukraine fearing to open the free market of land. Actually, this war in Ukraine was the undeclared total war against its own population (Fesenko, 2017).

 Psychological Explanations: As I see, this dimension translates to the age of global terrorism or global wars.  For example, arms depot with around 188 thousand tons of artillery, ammunition explodes in Ukraine on September 27, 2017. The armor-depot blast (Kalynivka blasts in Ukraine) coincides with the forthcoming events: the Ukrainians are expecting that the U.S. government could approve supply of the lethal weapons to Ukraine; the birthday of the President of Ukraine.  What is it, if not the psychological pressure on the U.S. decision?

 The other example is the car bomb assassination of the Ukrainian “Cyborg” on the Constitution Day, definitely is an attempt of de-legitimisation of the Ukrainian language and Constitution through the socio-psychological dimension (Fesenko, 2017).

 The good news is that The Seville Statement on Violence written by an international team of specialists in 1986 for the United Nations states that the war is not a biological necessity: peace is possible (P.P. UNION PROJECT, 2001). I believe this statement sounds convincing. On the other hand, I will agree with professor Centeno's statement “So we have to understand war as a product, in a sense, of this interaction between the cohesion and its positive role in aggression.” Cohesive groups and nations can maintain the competitive edge, pursue the longer-term goals, and be successful during the downturns. I'm against the war and believe that the peaceful outcome is possible.

References.

 Centeno, M. (2017).The Paradoxes of War. Retrieved from https://www.coursera.org

FAO. (n.d.). Social and cultural factors in extension. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/t0060e/T0060E04.htm

 Fesenko, Oleksiy. (2017). The Undeclared Wars: Genocide War of 1932-1933 vs. Anti-Terroristic War in Ukraine, 2014. References https://sites.google.com/a/oleksiy.net/classroom-template-1/theory/two_wars_ukraine

 Fesenko, Oleksiy. (2017). The Highly Technological and Complex Intrusion into Ukrainian Defense and Civil Life: The Socio-Psychological Dimension. Retrieved from http://business.oleksiy.net/tactics/delegitimization_ukraine

 Platt, J. (2013). The Great Sparrow Campaign was the start of the greatest mass starvation in history. Retrieved from https://www.mnn.com/earth-matters/animals/stories/the-great-sparrow-campaign-was-the-start-of-the-greatest-mass

P.P. UNION PROJECT. (2001). THE SEVILLE STATEMENT on violence. Retrieved from http://www.ppu.org.uk/learn/texts/doc_seville.html

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